Multiple harvests (six times per day at 5 day intervals) are conducted up to a maximum of 8-10 weeks before pond drainage and a complete harvest is necessary.
Tanks must be drained and recycled every 1-2 months because escaped fry are very predaceous on fry from subsequent spawns.
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The female incubates the eggs in her mouth and broods the fry after hatching until the yolk sac is absorbed.
Incubating and brooding is accomplished in 1 to 2 weeks, depending on temperature.
Brood fish are more productive if they are separated by sex and rested after spawning.
Commercial tilapia production generally requires the use of male monosex populations.
In addition, research on nutrition and culture systems, along with market development and processing advances, led to rapid expansion of the industry since the mid 1980s.